Heart is very sensitive and it works continuously. While performing heart operations, artificial circulation is given by the Heart Lung Machine (Cardiopulmonary bypass pump) which became the initiative for the Open Heart Surgery.
Open Heart Surgery
To perform the Open Heart Surgery, rib bones are to be cut and 10-12 inches should be cut on the chest. It takes a very long time for the rib bones to attach again and for the wound to cure. The patient needs to stay in hospital for 7 to 10 days and bed rest is required for 3 months. By using the heart lung machine, there will be a problem of bleeding and therefore blood is needed more. There may be problem of infections and convulsions also. Now Key Hole Surgery has replaced the Open heart Surgery.
Key Hole Surgery
Key Hole Surgery Is performed with small cut only. Cutting of ribs is not required. A small cut is made and with the help of thoracoscopy, bypass surgery is performed. As the cut is small, the patient can recover fastly. Side effects are less with key hole surgery. Bleeding is also less and infections are not observed. Hospital stay may be limited to 3 to 4 days and the patient can go for work after 2 to 3 weeks. There won’t be pain and cut mark on the chest. Key hole surgery is useful in bypass surgery even though there are holes in 2-3 parts. It is also useful for heart problems in children which are present by birth itself. Previously vein of required length is cut from the thigh. Nowadays by the endoscopic method, a vein is cut by making a small hole only. This is called as Endoscopic Vein Harvesting.
Endoscopic Vein Harvesting
In this method, big wound is not made so there will be no bleeding and pain. This is useful for obese persons, diabetic patients and women.